Rewards and punishments get discussed an awful lot in the dog world.
If you want to be more precise, though, you need to go the behavioral route, and talk about reinforcement. In dog training books, and on sites, you may or may not have seen the little grid with "positive reinforcement", "negative reinforcement", "positive punishment", and "negative punishment" in it.
Now in this case, positive and negative may not mean what you think they mean. Nor does punishment.
When I try to be all smart and revisit psychology texts regarding this, it muddies the waters. So I'll try to make it simple, and brief, for your benefit and mine.
Positive means adding something.
Negative means taking something away.
Got that? It doesn't mean good or evil, it has nothing to do with loving thy neighbor, it's far more math-y than that.
Positive Reinforcement: You praise your dog for greeting you calmly.
Negative Reinforcement: Your dog barks, and the mailman goes away.
Positive Punishment: Your dog chews on a book and you yell at her.
Negative punishment: Your dog jumps up to greet you, and you turn away.
Much simpler than diagrams. But, if you want to read it, the Reinforcement article on Wikipedia is rather more detailed.